Vitamin D Deficiency: Are You at Risk?

6 Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency according to a review published in the Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmoacotherapeutics . Vitamin D deficiency is being recognized as a world problem that can have serious health consequences for children and adults. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is produced from ultraviolet rays from the sun that strike the skin to trigger vitamin D production.  Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains calcium and phosphate levels to give us strong bones. It also supports muscle function, cell growth, neuromuscular function and immunity.

 

In the body, vitamin D is linked with:

  • Immune function
  • Blood pressure regulation
  • Muscle strength and mass
  • Absorption of calcium
  • Healthy weight management
  • Overall bone and teeth health

Vitamin D deficiency can go undetected as the signs and symptoms are asymptomatic, but lead to several health problems like:

  • Osteomalacia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Risk of stress fractures
  • Muscle aches and weakness
  • Muscle twitching
  • Periodontitis

 

Several factors influence vitamin D levels. Here are the six important ones!

  1. Location. The further away from the equator you live, the less vitamin D producing UVB light that reaches the earth’s surface during winter. For example, residents in Minnesota may receive little if any of the vitamin from October through February. Short days and wearing clothing that covers arms and legs also limits UVB exposure.
  2. Skin color. Dark-skinned people tend to require more UVB exposure than light-skinned people to produce the same amount of vitamin D. This is due to melanin in the skin that makes it dark. It competes for UVB that stimulates the body’s vitamin D production. Sun screen will also limit skin’s ability by 97%.
  3. Body Composition. People who carry excess weight do not have a change in vitamin D production, but higher body fat concentrations affect levels of vitamin D in the blood. Remember that vitamin D is fat soluble, which means the more body fat the more diluted it gets. If you are overweight or obese with a BMI >30 you may need more vitamin D.
  4. Gastrointestinal disorders. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, so fat is necessary for absorption.  Those with Crohn’s, Celiac, or Inflammatory Bowel Disease are unable to absorb fat properly leading to a deficiency in fat soluble vitamins, like vitamin D.
  5. Aging. Skin production of vitamin D in older adults decreases due to skin changes with a reduced amount of the vitamin D precursor. Lifestyle factors with limited outdoor exposure and more layers of clothing also negatively impact vitamin D production. Lastly, renal production of vitamin D decreases due to diminishing renal function with age. These changing factors in vitamin D metabolism generate a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency.
  6. Dietary intake. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and if you avoid milk or follow a strict vegan diet you are at an increased risk. Since most of the natural sources are animal based, including fish and fish oils, egg yolks, fortified milk, and beef liver.

Limited intake requires fortified sources. Fortified means vitamin D has been added.  Foods that contain vitamin D include; Fatty fish like mackerel, salmon, halibut, tuna, sardines and herring.  Fortified sources include; milk, orange juice, yogurt and cereal.  Mushrooms and egg yolks also contain traces of vitamin D.  The recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D for male and females under the age of 70 is 600 units, and 800 for people over 70. For those under 12 months calls for an intake of 400 units a day.

Vitamin D content in food sources include:

  • 6 oz. fortified yogurt = 80 IU
  • 3 oz. of salmon = 794 IU
  • 1 cup of fortified cereal = 40 IU
  • 1 cup of fortified milk = 120 IU
  • 1 egg yolk = 41 IU
  • 1 cup of fortified orange juice = 137 IU

 

Vitamin D is important to overall health.  The best way to have a healthy level of vitamin D is consuming foods rich in vitamin D and getting adequate sun exposure when possible. It’s important to note that resources and blood tests available to determine if you are vitamin D deficient. For more information, you should consult with your physician, dietitian or health practitioner before taking a vitamin D supplement or if you feel you are at risk for vitamin D deficiency.

Interested in learning more about your vitamin D status? Check out the website of the Vitamin D Society for more information. A more comprehensive table of Vitamin D concentrations and health are found here via the National Institute of Health.

As a registered dietitian nutritionist, I am very passionate about vitamin D an overall health. In addition to this article will be another illustrating the important role vitamin D plays in athletic performance.

In good health,

 

Wendi Irlbeck, MS, RDN

Overindulge on Thanksgiving? Damage Control Tips for the Weekend After

A delicious left-over pumpkin pie taunts you from the kitchen counter alongside the heaps of leftovers in the fridge, saying, “eat me!” Or those sugar cookies and assorted desserts your guests conveniently forgot to take home? Eh, what’s one more going to do? The weekend after Thanksgiving can be toughest for many hoping to maintain their weight and health goals. Holiday weight gain is quite common for many adults. So, you’re feeling guilty from too much pie and turkey. The best thing you can do now is let the past exist in the past. Say “goodbye” to the guilt, shame or any negative feelings you may have because you have a new day in front of you and an opportunity to take control moving forward.

Many of my clients have expressed that “it’s inevitable to gain weight and I might as well just start over on January 1st.” While I honor those, who desire to start off a new year with health as a priority, this is not the best mentality for life-long health. As a registered dietitian and trainer who has been where you currently are, I encourage you to work smarter, not harder. Let me throw out an analogy for you – if you sign up for a 5k, which is roughly 3.10 miles, would you start your race 2 miles before the starting line, expecting the same time and competition as if you started at the starting line with the other runners? Raise your hand if you want to work harder and put yourself at a disadvantage? I wouldn’t put my hand up either, so what I am getting at here is if you know you want to lose weight or improve your lifestyle, start the process now.

Let’s begin by being mindful of our health and fitness goals by minimizing the empty calories and overindulgence that takes place between today and January 1st. Would you not feel better if you started today and not January first like everyone else? The truth is you don’t have to start two miles behind the starting line and then end up running a 7k when you’re only training for a 5k. Let’s CHOOSE to make it easier for ourselves, limiting the shame and guilt, because holiday weight gain is not inevitable! I believe in you – you should too – and I promise you can do this!

Here are 5 tips to help you focus on gaining more memories this holiday season than lbs.:

  1. Repeat after me, “resume normal eating immediately”

The worst thing you can do today is continue with the oversized portions of foods that you don’t normally consume. Get back on track with your normal intake of balanced meals containing a lean protein, fruit, vegetable and healthy fat. It’s important not to consume meals that are both high in fat and high in carbohydrates to offset blood sugar levels. You likely consumed an overabundance of carbohydrates on Thanksgiving so it may be wise to CHOOSE to limit carbs and even calories in these immediate days after to re-stabilize your hormones. Don’t make the mistake of skipping meals now to try and off-set the over-eating you did on Thanksgiving. Unless you practice intermittent fasting in your normal routine, you shouldn’t skip meals. Skipping meals can lead to feeling overly hungry later, which will make matters worse.

  1. Get active with family & friends

Sitting on the couch watching Netflix may be your family’s holiday tradition. However, inactivity contributes to weight gain, especially during times of overeating. Make a new tradition with your family spending time moving with your loved ones! Races are popular this time of year – go sign up as a family and gain memories! If you can’t run, walking can be just as beneficial. Movement is movement! Look at gym memberships that are likely currently available at a lower to no joining fee cost!

  1. Drink up!
    • I’m not talking about the eggnog. Although it’s delicious, it won’t help you with your health and fitness goals. I am talking about water. It is so important to increase your water intake during the holidays due to the different foods you’ve been consuming which can disrupt regular digestion. Your gut and waistline will thank you for greaterImage result for water glass" water intake after eating new foods.
    • Water consumption is also a great way to curb cravings and stay hydrated. Often when we are “hungry” or have a craving it is because we are thirsty and dehydrated. Be sure to drink 20 oz. of water every couple of hours throughout the day to stay hydrated and ward off unnecessary snacking. Research exists indicating increased hydration can be associated with weight loss.
    • According to the study, higher protein and water intake is associated with weight loss. If you’re having difficulty losing weight and finding yourself overly hungry all the time, you may want to reevaluate your water intake. Drinking water before meals can help you feel fuller and can also assist with digestion during meals.
  2. Control portions
    • Controlling portions supports getting back into a routine of normal eating. Keep in mind the portions you may or may not have learned –
      • A portion of protein is the size of your palm which is roughly equivalent to 3 oz.
      • A serving of veggies is 1 cup and fruits is 0.5 cup
      • A fat is approximately 1 Tbsp. nuts and seeds should be limited to a serving of 0.5 oz.
      • Should you choose to include a carbohydrate, a serving is 1 slice of bread, 0.5 cup of pasta or 1 cup of a whole grain.
    • In instances of weight loss and management it may be more helpful to increase protein, fruits and vegetables. I recommend working with a dietitian to ensure you’re hitting appropriate portions and getting adequate nutrition.
  3. Focus on quality sleep and managing stress levels
    • Sleep deprivation during the holidays is quite common and can further lead to poor nutrition and physical activity habits. Those that tend to sleep less tend to be hungrier and a result can over consume calories leading to an increase on the scale. Additionally, less hours slept is also associated with a disruption in the circadian rhythm, which is our biological clock controlling many important physiological functions. Aim for 7-9 hours of quality sleep per night. This will also help prevent your risk of getting sick and missing out on the true enjoyment of the holiday festivities.

These five simple tips will enable you to focus on progress through the holiday season! Should you over-eat or have something outside of your “plan,” tell yourself “it’s okay,” dust the cookie crumbs off and keep moving forward. “When a child learns to walk and falls down 50 times, the child never thinks to himself maybe this isn’t for me.” Always get back up and keep moving!

Your health and fitness coach,
Wendi Irlbeck, MS, RDN

Tips for Staying on “Track” this Holiday Season!

The holidays are a time for cheer, indulging and celebration with family and friends at parties. So, how do you enjoy the delicious treats but still stay on track with your goals? As a registered dietitian and sports nutritionist, I have some strategies that will help you stay lean and healthy to keep you on track with your health and performance goals during the holiday season!

Repeat after me, it is not about being perfect but maintaining accountability. Set an intention before you attend a holiday party or event. Hold yourself accountable by sharing your intent of “health” or eating “well” with your family and friends at the party. By setting an intent beforehand you are less likely to indulge in food or drink that make you feel less than your best! Another great way to stay on track is to avoid skipping meals to save calories. This is a common mistake made by many that if they save all their calories for the party, they won’t overindulge. It would be wise to consume a balanced snack with lean protein and healthy fat like string cheese, hummus and pepper slices. Check out this awesome recipe for a tasty , lighter and smoother version of hummus using Greek yogurt! Another factor to keep in mind is pairing quality protein and fat to help reduce cravings for sugar and overly processed carbs.

Let’s talk about alcohol, which is a real challenge for most around the holidays. Alcohol lowers your ability to make good decisions and can lead to regret in the days following. Most alcoholic beverages are loaded with sugar and empty calories. If your goals are to maintain good health, energy and optimize your workouts it may be wise to limit or avoid alcohol. Request a sparkling or fruit infused water at the party. Your waistline, scale and next 5k time will thank you for that! In addition to re-thinking your drink, it would be wise to eat mindfully. Mindfulness means expressing gratitude with each bite of food. After all it is a time of cheer, spirit and gratitude during the holiday season! Before the meal, take some deep breaths and as you eat, breathe through your nose, chewing every bite slowly by focusing on the flavors, colors, and smells. Then after, assess your hunger on a scale of 1 to 10 and determine how much more food you need to consume to be satisfied.

Another great way to stay on track and even enhance your relationships with others is to focus on the people, not the food. Focus on the conversation with the people at the table instead of what’s on your plate. You will learn quite quickly how much the person appreciates your attentiveness and eye contact with them, over pushing around the pie on your plate next to the carrot slices. Make a point to plan a fun activity after the meal, a group walk, board games, and offer the host assistance with the cleanup. Again, not only will the host appreciate this, but this decreases the risk of you reaching for another dessert or overeating, plus you’ll burn more calories than sitting in a chair!

Staying on track often means playing some mad defense. Yes, I said defense. Food pushers are at every gathering, function and we all know them, and you may even be one. Keep in mind to be polite when being pushed to indulge. Many of us can identify certain relatives as food pushers, they may ask you to have another slice of pie or try the turkey shaped cookies on the counter next to the mimosas, when really you don’t want to over do it. You kindly and respectfully decline but they again proceed to say, “have one, come on you work so hard and are always so strict, just one won’t hurt you.” Remember to stay your course. It can be challenging to say “no”, but this is oh-so important when the average weight gain during the holidays is around 6-8 pounds!

When trying to resist the urge to overindulge or play defense against the food pushers keep these tips in mind:

-Load up on high quality protein (chicken, beef, eggs, cheese, yogurt)
-Pick your favorite dessert, only eat one serving of it.
-Practice mindful eating and focus on how hungry you are.
-Load up on veggies if you feel the urge to snack and limit dips and dressings that can be high calorie

Maintain consistent workouts. Be sure to participate in a good long run or some aerobic exercise to offset some of the inflammation and higher calorie foods that are not your usual diet. Encourage your friends & family to join you!
Lastly, if you get off track you can always get back on the right one to lead you to your destination. Let me be straight with you, as runners and fitness enthusiasts you can often get off course during a run. If you do, do you just lay there in the forest or the trail to die? Of course not! You get back up and find yRunner outside on snowy dayour course back to your end destination. Our diet is the same, if you get off course you can always get back on track the next day to reach your destination! The holidays are meant to be enjoyed and celebrated with loved ones and it is okay to try new foods and to sample delicious treats. Just be mindful of your goals and incorporate the strategies in this blog for success!

Your health and fitness coach,

Wendi Irlbeck, MS, RDN